Definition, Structure, and Types of Sentences

A sentence is defined as a word or a group of words that expresses a complete thought. It may consist on a single word, a single phrase or a combination of word and phrases. A sentence expresses an idea through four its types: assertive, interrogative, imperative or an exclamatory sentence. A sentence always starts with a capital letter and end with a punctuation mark depending on the function of the sentence.


  • She is a nice girl. (statement)
  • Is Jam a bad student? (question)
  • Please, open the door. (imperative)
  • What a nice place! (exclaiming)

Structure of sentence

Normally, Structure of a sentence has a subject, verb and an object and the format of a simple sentence in English follows as:

Subject + Verb + Object

Ali + plays + cricket.

A sentence can be a complete sentence without an object or subject but verb should be present in a sentence. Verb is considered as the heart of a sentence.  


  • Write an essay. (Here subject is hidden but we can find verb and object)
  • Ali writes an essay. (Here verb, subject and object are present)
  • Aslam writes. (Here subjects and verb are present but the object is missing)

Types of sentences

The division of sentences is basically on two bases: Structure of sentence and function of sentence.

Structurally, sentences are of four types: simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, and Compound-complex sentence.

Functionally, sentences are also of four types: declarative sentences, interrogative sentences, imperative sentences and exclamatory sentences

Types of sentences bases on structure

Simple sentence

A simple sentence has a single independent clause (a single verb) and do not depend on other clause.


  • I love mangoes very much.
  • He is my brother.

Compound sentence

A compound sentence consists on more than one independent clause with no dependent clauses. Conjunctions or linker are used to connect the clauses.


  • Your pen is too cheap, and my pen is so tiny.
  • You are late, but I arrived in time.

Complex sentence

A complex sentence differs from a compound sentence and also has more than one clause but the difference lie here that one of the clause must be an independent clause and the other should be a dependent clause.


  • This room is much hot, therefore I switched ON fan.
  • Although she was happy, she got a divorce from her husband.

Compound-complex sentence

Compound-complex sentences (also known as complex–compound sentences) are a combination of complex sentences and compound sentences and this combination make a single sentence. Such sentences contain at least two independent clauses and one dependent clause.


  • Though Jam love watching horror movies, he rented the latest movie, and he enjoyed it with friends.
  • Henry forgot her sister’s birthday, so she called her for an excuse when she finally remembered.

Types of sentences bases on function

Declarative sentence

A declarative sentence (assertive sentence) simply contains information, fact, opinion, a statement, or describes things. Such sentences declare something and all declarative sentences end with period/full stop.


  • She is a doctor. (statement)
  • I am feeling hungry. (feeling)
  • Earth is round. (fact)
  • Chair has four legs. (describing)

Imperative sentence

Imperative sentences are used to make a request or to give an advice, direction or a command. Imperative sentences are also known as a jussive or a directive. Depending upon its function, imperative sentences may end with an exclamation mark or a full stop.


  • Please come here.
  • Open the door.
  • Sit down.

Interrogative sentence

An interrogative sentence we ask a question and must end with a question mark.


  • What is your name?
  • Do you know about my red pen?
  • Why are you late?

Exclamatory sentence

Exclamatory sentence conveys strong emotion. These emotions can be of sorrow, wonder, happiness, or anger.  Such sentences end with exclamation marks.


  • What a lovely weather!
  • Oh my God!