Definition, Structure, and Types of Sentence
Definition of a Sentence
A sentence is defined as a word or a group of words that expresses a complete thought. It may consist on a single word, a single phrase or a combination of word and phrases. A sentence expresses an idea through four its types: assertive, interrogative, imperative or an exclamatory sentence. A sentence always starts with a capital letter and end with a punctuation mark depending on the function of the sentence.
She is a nice girl. (statement)
Is Jam a bad student? (question)
Please, open the door. (imperative)
What a nice place! (exclaiming)
Structure of a sentence
Normally, Structure of sentence has a subject, verb and an object and the format of simple sentence in English follows as:
Subject + Verb + Object
Ali + plays + cricket
A sentence can be a complete sentence without an object or subject but verb should be present in a sentence. Verb is considered as the heart of a sentence.
Write an essay. (Here subject is hidden but we can fine verb and object)
Ali writes an essay. (Here verb, subject and object are present)
Aslam writes. (Here subjects and verb are present but object is missing)
Types of Sentences
The division of sentences is basically on two bases: Structure of sentence and function of sentence.
1. Structurally, sentences are of four types: simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, and Compound-complex sentence.
2. Functionally, sentences are also of four types: declarative sentences, interrogative sentences, imperative sentences and exclamatory sentences
Types of sentence based on its structure
1. Simple sentence
A simple sentence has a single independent clause (a single verb) and do not depend on other clause.
I love mangoes very much.
He is my brother.
2. Compound sentence
A compound sentence consists on more than one independent clause with no dependent clauses. Conjunctions or linker are used to connect the clauses.
Your pen is too cheap, and my pen is so tiny.
You are late, but I arrived in time.
3. Complex sentence
A complex sentence differs from compound sentence and also has more than one clause but the difference lie here that one of the clause must be an independent clause and the other should be a dependent clause.
This room is much hot, therefore I switched ON fan.
Although she was happy, she got divorce from her husband.
4. Compound-complex sentence
Compound-complex sentences (also known as complex–compound sentences) are a combination of complex sentences and compound sentences and this combination make a single sentence. Such sentences contain at least two independent clauses and one dependent clause.
Though Jam love watching horror movies, he rented the latest movie, and he enjoyed it with friends.
Henry forgot her sister’s birthday, so she called her for excuse when she finally remembered.
Types of sentence based on its function
1. Declarative sentence:
A declarative sentence (assertive sentence) simply contains information, fact, opinion, a statement, or describes things. Such sentences declare something and all declarative sentences end with period/full stop.
She is a doctor. (statement)
I am feeling hungry. (feeling)
Earth is round. (fact)
Chair has four legs. (describing)
2. Imperative sentence:
Imperative sentences are used to make a request or to give an advice, direction or a command. Imperative sentences are also known as a jussive or a directive. Depending upon its function, imperative sentences may end with an exclamation mark or a full stop.
Please come here.
Open the door.
3. Interrogative sentence
An interrogative sentence we ask a question and must end with a question mark.
What is your name?
Do you know about my red pen?
Why are you late?
4. Exclamatory sentence
Exclamatory sentence conveys strong emotion. These emotions can be of sorrow, wonder, happiness, or anger. Such sentences end with exclamation marks.
What a lovely weather!
Oh my God!