Capitalization Rules in English Grammar
Capitalization Rules in English language are a little complex compared to other language writing systems. Capitalization is the way of writing a word in which the first letter of word is capitalized and other remain in lowercase. Here are some rules for capitalization in English.
Rule 1: Capitalize the first letter of first word of a sentence and first word after a full stop.
Example: He is a boy. He is in 7th class.
Rule 2: Capitalize all proper nouns and all adjectives derived from proper nouns.
Example: Henry loves Indian songs.
Rule 3: Capitalize the initial word of name of companies.
Example: I was appointed as a manager in Star International Marketing.
Rule 4: Specific period and historical events are capitalized.
Example: In Middle Ages, most of the literature was produced by Chaucer and successors.
Rule 5: Capitalize the initial word of brand names.
Example: Mostly people use Google browser.
Rule 6: Capitalize the initial word of days of the week and months of the year.
Example: Jane’s wedding is in June.
Rule 7: Names of seasons are not capitalized because they are not proper nouns.
Example: I love autumn.
Rule 8: Capitalize the initial word of holidays.
Example: I will give you a surprise on Valentine Day.
Rule 9: Capitalize the initial word of institutions.
Example: I studies at Cambridge School System.
Rule 10: Capitalize the initial letter of man-made structures:
Example: I offered last prayer in Faisal Mosque.
Rule 11: Capitalize the initial word of natural and man-made landmarks.
Example: I want to climb Mount Everest.
Rule 12: Capitalize the initial word of all nicknames and epithets.
Example: Meet my younger brother, Sunny. He is fan of Nawab of Kala Bagh.
Rule 13: Capitalize the initial letter of all formal organizations.
Example: My brother got an appointment letter from Ministry of Defense, Pakistan.
Rule 14: Capitalize the initial letter of planets.
Example: There are several planets in the galaxy: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Earth.
We know that Earth revolves around the sun. (Earth is capitalized only when it is discussed as a planet.)
Rule 15: Capitalize the initial letter of races, nationalities, and tribes. Punjabi, Balochi, East Indian, Africans.
Example: I love Punjabi people because of their hospitality.
Rule 16: Capitalize the initial letter of all religions, holly books, and names of deities.
Example: There is no God, but Allah.
Rule 17: Do not capitalize heaven, the devil, hell, satanic, etc.
Example: What the hell is this?
Rule 18: Capitalize the initial word of special occasions.
Example: All Olympic Games were postponed due to corona virus disease.
Rule 19: Capitalize all the titles whenever used before names.
Examples: Chairman of the Board Henry Joseph will be chairperson at the meeting.
Rule 20: Do not capitalize the titles whenever used followed by the names or followed by a comma and do not capitalize the title if it is used instead of a name.
Examples: The chairman of the board, Henry Joseph, will preside the meeting. The president will address meeting.
Rule 21: There is difference between titles and occupations. Do not capitalize occupations before full names or followed by names.
Examples: The company owner Henry Smith was with me.
Rule 22: Those titles who replace someone’s first name are usually capitalized.
Example: Here comes Doctor Elizabeth.
Rule 23: Normally, a title is capitalized when it is used as a direct address.
Examples: Will you teach me, Professor?
Rule 24: Capitalize kinship names (monikers) when they are used alone in place of a personal name.
Examples: I am happy to see that Mom is also here.
Rule 25: However, these kinship names are not capitalized when used in possessive case, or followed by person’s name, or when they do not refer to a specific person.
Examples: Your mom is in my bedroom. Tom’s grandpa looks fine.
Rule 26: Capitalize nickname for a person in all cases.
Examples: Meet my sisters, Juny and Sonu.
Rule 27: Usually, word ‘the’ is not capitalized before proper nouns.
Examples: We visited the PC Hotel.
Rule 28: Always capitalize the first word in a complete quotation, even it is in mid sentence.
Example: Joseph said, “The game was not easy, but we won”.
Rule 29: In some cases quoted phrase is not capitalized if it continues a sentence.
Example: Henry told us that the matter was “far from over” and that “we will win.”
Rule 30: Do not capitalize the first word in a list that follows a colon.
Example: Give me the following: pencil, a rubber, and a chart.
Rule 31: If colon is followed by a complete sentences than first word after colon is capitalized.
Example: Ali gave me one advice: Always speak truth and be polite to everyone.
Rule 32: Book titles are capitalized in such a way that every content word is capitalized and function words remain in lowercase.
Example: ‘History of English Language’ is a book written by Michel.
Rule 33: In poetry personified elements are capitalized. (Personified-human trait attributed to inanimate objects).
Example: The Sun was angry and showering heat on the sea.
Rule 34: In poetry, each line of stanza starts with a capitalized word.