Capitalization Rules in English Grammar

Capitalization Rules in English Grammar


Capitalization Rules in English language are a little complex compared to other language writing systems. Capitalization is the way of writing a word in which the first letter of word is capitalized and other remain in lowercase.  Here are some rules for capitalization in English.

Rule 1: Capitalize the first letter of first word of a sentence and first word after a full stop.

Example: He is a boy. He is in 7th class.

Rule 2: Capitalize all proper nouns and all adjectives derived from proper nouns.

Example: Henry loves Indian songs.

Rule 3: Capitalize the initial word of name of companies.

ExampleI was appointed as a manager in Star International Marketing.

Rule 4: Specific period and historical events are capitalized.

Example: In Middle Ages, most of the literature was produced by Chaucer and successors.

Rule 5: Capitalize the initial word of brand names.

Example: Mostly people use Google browser.

Rule 6: Capitalize the initial word of days of the week and months of the year.

Example: Jane’s wedding is in June.

Rule 7: Names of seasons are not capitalized because they are not proper nouns.

ExampleI love autumn.

Rule 8: Capitalize the initial word of holidays.

Example: I will give you a surprise on Valentine Day.

Rule 9: Capitalize the initial word of institutions.

Example: I studies at Cambridge School System.

Rule 10: Capitalize the initial letter of man-made structures:

Example: I offered last prayer in Faisal Mosque.

Rule 11: Capitalize the initial word of natural and man-made landmarks.

Example: I want to climb Mount Everest.

Rule 12: Capitalize the initial word of all nicknames and epithets.

Example: Meet my younger brother, Sunny. He is fan of Nawab of Kala Bagh.

Rule 13: Capitalize the initial letter of all formal organizations.

Example: My brother got an appointment letter from Ministry of Defense, Pakistan.

 Rule 14: Capitalize the initial letter of planets.

Example: There are several planets in the galaxy: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Earth.

We know that Earth revolves around the sun. (Earth is capitalized only when it is discussed as a planet.)

Rule 15: Capitalize the initial letter of races, nationalities, and tribes. Punjabi, Balochi, East Indian, Africans.

Example: I love Punjabi people because of their hospitality.

Rule 16: Capitalize the initial letter of all religions, holly books, and names of deities.

Example: There is no God, but Allah.

Rule 17: Do not capitalize heaven, the devil, hell, satanic, etc.

ExampleWhat the hell is this?

Rule 18: Capitalize the initial word of special occasions.

Example: All Olympic Games were postponed due to corona virus disease.

Rule 19: Capitalize all the titles whenever used before names.

Examples: Chairman of the Board Henry Joseph will be chairperson at the meeting.

 Rule 20: Do not capitalize the titles whenever used followed by the names or followed by a comma and do not capitalize the title if it is used instead of a name.

ExamplesThe chairman of the board, Henry Joseph, will preside the meeting. The president will address meeting.

Rule 21: There is difference between titles and occupations. Do not capitalize occupations before full names or followed by names.

ExamplesThe company owner Henry Smith was with me.

Rule 22: Those titles who replace someone’s first name are usually capitalized.

Example: Here comes Doctor Elizabeth.

Rule 23: Normally, a title is capitalized when it is used as a direct address.

ExamplesWill you teach me, Professor?

Rule 24: Capitalize kinship names (monikers) when they are used alone in place of a personal name.

Examples: I am happy to see that Mom is also here.

Rule 25: However, these kinship names are not capitalized when used in possessive case, or followed by person’s name, or when they do not refer to a specific person.

Examples: Your mom is in my bedroom. Tom’s grandpa looks fine.

Rule 26: Capitalize nickname for a person in all cases.

Examples: Meet my sisters, Juny and Sonu.

Rule 27: Usually, word ‘the’ is not capitalized before proper nouns.

Examples: We visited the PC Hotel.

Rule 28: Always capitalize the first word in a complete quotation, even it is in mid sentence.

Example: Joseph said, “The game was not easy, but we won”.

Rule 29: In some cases quoted phrase is not capitalized if it continues a sentence.

Example: Henry told us that the matter was “far from over” and that “we will win.”

Rule 30: Do not capitalize the first word in a list that follows a colon.

Example: Give me the following: pencil, a rubber, and a chart.

Rule 31: If colon is followed by a complete sentences than first word after colon is capitalized.

Example: Ali gave me one advice: Always speak truth and be polite to everyone.

Rule 32: Book titles are capitalized in such a way that every content word is capitalized and function words remain in lowercase.

Example: ‘History of English Language’ is a book written by Michel.

Rule 33: In poetry personified elements are capitalized. (Personified-human trait attributed to inanimate objects).

Example: The Sun was angry and showering heat on the sea.

Rule 34: In poetry, each line of stanza starts with a capitalized word.