Definition and Types of Word
Definition of a Word
A word is a speech sound or a combination of sound having a particular meaning for an idea, object or thought and has a spoken or written form. In English language word is composed by an individual letter (e.g., ‘I’), I am a boy, or by combination of letters (e.g., Jam, name of a person) Jam is a boy. Morphology, a branch of linguistics, deals with the structure of words where we learn under which rules new words are formed, how we assigned a meaning to a word? how a word functions in a proper context? how to spell a word? etc.
Examples of word: All sentences are formed by a series of words. A sentence starts with a word, consists on words and ends with a word. Therefore, there is nothing else in a sentence than a word.
Some different examples are: Boy, kite, fox, mobile phone, nature, etc.
Different Types of Word
An abbreviation is a word that is a short form of a long word.
Example: Dr for doctor, gym for gymnasium
Acronym is one of the commonly used types of word formed from the first letter or letters of a compound word/ term and used as a single word.
Example: PIA for Pakistan International Airline
An antonym is a word that has opposite meaning of an another word
Example: Forward is an antonym of word backward or open is an antonym of word close.
Back formation word is a new word that is produced by removing a part of another word.
Example: In English, ‘tweeze’ (pluck) is a back formation from ‘tweezers’.
Clipped word is a word that has been clipped from an already existing long word for ease of use.
Example: ad for advertisement
Collocation is a use of certain words that are frequently used together in form of a phrase or a short sentence.
Example: Make the bed,
Compound words are created by placing two or more words together. When compound word is formed the individual words lose their meaning and form a new meaning collectively. Both words are joined by a hyphen, a space or sometime can be written together.
Example: Ink-pot, ice cream,
A content word is a word that carries some information or has meaning in speech and writing.
Example: Energy, goal, idea.
A Contraction is a word that is formed by shortening two or more words and joining them by an apostrophe.
Example: ‘Don’t’ is a contraction of the word ‘do not’.
Derivation is a word that is derived from within a language or from another language.
Example: Strategize (to make a plan) from strategy (a plan).
Diminutive is a word that is formed by adding a diminutive suffix with a word.
Example: Duckling by adding suffix link with word duck.
Function word is a word that is mainly used for expressing some grammatical relationships between other words in a sentence.
Example: (Such as preposition, or auxiliary verb) but, with, into etc.
Homograph is a word that is same in written form (spelled alike) as another word but with a different meaning, origin, and occasionally pronounced with a different pronunciation
Example: Bow for ship and same word bow for shooting arrows.
Homonyms are the words that are spelled alike and have same pronunciation as another word but have a different meaning.
Example: Lead (noun) a material and lead (verb) to guide or direct.
Homophones are the words that have same pronunciation as another word but differ in spelling, meaning, and origin.
Example: To, two, and too are homophones.
Hyponym is a word that has more specific meaning than another more general word of which it is an example.
Example: ‘Parrot’ is a hyponym of ‘birds’.
Legalism is a type of word that is used in law terminology.
Example: Summon, confess, judiciary
Linker or conjuncts are the words or phrase like ‘however’ or ‘what’s more’ that links what has already been written or said to what is following.
Example: however, whereas, moreover.
A loanword or borrowed word is a word taken from one language to use it in another language without any change.
Example: The word pizza is taken from Italian language and used in English language
Metonym is a word which we use to refer to something else that it is directly related to that.
Example: ‘Islamabad’ is frequently used as a metonym for the Pakistan government.
Monosyllable is a word that has only one syllable.
Example: Come, go, in, yes, or no are monosyllables.
Polysyllable is a word that has two or more than two syllables.
Example: Interwoven, something or language are polysyllables.
Rhyme is a type of word used in poetry that ends with similar sound as the other words in stanza.
Example; good, wood, should, could.
Synonym is a word that has similar meaning as another word.
Example: ‘happiness’ is a synonym for ‘joy’.